solaris - passwd (1)
passwd - change login password and password attributes
passwd [ name ]
passwd -r files [ -egh ] [ name ]
passwd -r files -s [ -a ]
passwd -r files -s [ name ]
passwd -r files [ -d | -l ] [ -f ] [ -n min ] [ -w warn ]
[ -x max ] name
passwd -r nis [ -egh ] [ name ]
passwd -r nisplus [ -egh ] [ -D domainname ] [ name ]
passwd -r nisplus -s [ -a ]
passwd -r nisplus [ -D domainname ] -s [ name ]
passwd -r nisplus [ -l ] [ -f ] [ -n min ] [ -w warn ]
[ -x max ] [ -D domainname ] name
The passwd command changes the password or lists password
attributes associated with the user's login name. Addition-
ally, privileged users may use passwd to install or change
passwords and attributes associated with any login name.
When used to change a password, passwd prompts everyone for
their old password, if any. It then prompts for the new
password twice. When the old password is entered, passwd
checks to see if it has "aged" sufficiently. If "aging" is
insufficient, passwd terminates; see pwconv(1M), nist-
bladm(1), and shadow(4) for additional information. The
pwconv command creates and updates /etc/shadow with informa-
tion from /etc/passwd. pwconv relies on a special value of
'x' in the password field of /etc/passwd. This value of 'x'
indicates that the password for the user is already in
/etc/shadow and should not be modified.
If aging is sufficient, a check is made to ensure that the
new password meets construction requirements. When the new
password is entered a second time, the two copies of the new
password are compared. If the two copies are not identical
the cycle of prompting for the new password is repeated for
at most two more times.
Passwords must be constructed to meet the following require-
o Each password must have at least six characters.
Only the first eight characters are significant.
PASSLENGTH is found in /etc/default/passwd and is set
o Each password must contain at least two alphabetic
characters and at least one numeric or special char-
acter. In this case, "alphabetic" refers to all
upper or lower case letters.
o Each password must differ from the user's login name
and any reverse or circular shift of that login name.
For comparison purposes, an upper case letter and its
corresponding lower case letter are equivalent.
o New passwords must differ from the old by at least
three characters. For comparison purposes, an upper
case letter and its corresponding lower case letter
If all requirements are met, by default, the passwd command
will consult /etc/nsswitch.conf to determine in which repo-
sitories to perform password update. It searches the passwd
and passwd_compat entries. The sources (repositories) asso-
ciated with these entries will be updated. However, the
password update configurations supported are limited to the
following 5 cases. Failure to comply with the configura-
tions will prevent users from logging onto the system.
o passwd: files
o passwd: files nis
o passwd: files nisplus
o passwd: compat (==> files nis)
o passwd: compat (==> files nisplus)
Network administrators, who own the NIS+ password table, may
change any password attributes.
In files case, super-users (for instance, real and effective
uid equal to zero, see id(1M) and su(1M)) may change any
password; hence, passwd does not prompt privileged users for
the old password. Privileged users are not forced to comply
with password aging and password construction requirements.
A privileged user can create a null password by entering a
carriage return in response to the prompt for a new pass-
word. (This differs from passwd -d because the "password"
prompt will still be displayed.)
Any user may use the -s option to show password attributes
for his or her own login name. Provided they are using the
-r nisplus argument. Otherwise the - s argument is res-
tricted to the super-user.
The format of the display will be:
name status mm/dd/yy min max warn
or, if password aging information is not present,
name The login ID of the user.
status The password status of name: PS stands for
passworded or locked, LK stands for locked, and
NP stands for no password.
The date password was last changed for name.
(Note that all password aging dates are deter-
mined using Greenwich Mean Time (Universal
Time) and, therefore, may differ by as much as
a day in other time zones.)
min The minimum number of days required between
password changes for name. MINWEEKS is found
in /etc/default/passwd and is set to NULL.
max The maximum number of days the password is
valid for name. MAXWEEKS is found in
/etc/default/passwd and is set to NULL.
warn The number of days relative to max before the
password expires and the name will be warned.
-r Specifies the repository to which an opera-
tion is applied. The supported repositories
are files, nis, or nisplus.
-e Change the login shell.
-g Change the gecos (finger) information.
-h Change the home directory.
-D domainname Consult the passwd.org_dir table in domain-
name. If this option is not specified, the
default domainname returned by
nis_local_directory(3N) will be used. This
domain name is the same as that returned by
-s name Show password attributes for the login name.
For the nisplus repository, this works for
everyone. However for the files repository,
this only works for the super-user. It does
not work at all for the nis repository which
does not support password aging.
-a Show password attributes for all entries.
Use only with the -s option; name must not be
provided. For nisplus repository, this will
show only the entries in the NIS+ passwd
table in the local domain that the invoker is
authorized to "read". For the files reposi-
tory, this is restricted to the super-user.
Privileged User Options
Only a privileged user can use the following options:
-f Force the user to change password at the
next login by expiring the password for name.
-l Locks password entry for name.
-n min Set minimum field for name. The min field
contains the minimum number of days between
password changes for name. If min is greater
than max, the user may not change the pass-
word. Always use this option with the - x
option, unless max is set to -1 (aging turned
off). In that case, min need not be set.
-w warn Set warn field for name. The warn field
contains the number of days before the pass-
word expires and the user is warned.
-x max Set maximum field for name. The max field
contains the number of days that the password
is valid for name. The aging for name will
be turned off immediately if max is set to -
1. If it is set to 0, then the user is
forced to change the password at the next
login session and aging is turned off.
-d Deletes password for name. The login name
will not be prompted for password. It is
only applicable to the files repository.
If any of the LC_* variables ( LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
LC_TIME, LC_COLLATE, LC_NUMERIC, and LC_MONETARY ) (see
environ(5)) are not set in the environment, the operational
behavior of passwd for each corresponding locale category is
determined by the value of the LANG environment variable.
If LC_ALL is set, its contents are used to override both the
LANG and the other LC_* variables. If none of the above
variables is set in the environment, the "C" (U.S. style)
locale determines how passwd behaves.
LC_CTYPE Determines how passwd handles characters.
When LC_CTYPE is set to a valid value, passwd
can display and handle text and filenames
containing valid characters for that locale.
passwd can display and handle Extended Unix
Code (EUC) characters where any individual
character can be 1, 2, or 3 bytes wide.
passwd can also handle EUC characters of 1,
2, or more column widths. In the "C" locale,
only characters from ISO 8859-1 are valid.
LC_MESSAGES Determines how diagnostic and informative
messages are presented. This includes the
language and style of the messages, and the
correct form of affirmative and negative
responses. In the "C" locale, the messages
are presented in the default form found in
the program itself (in most cases, U.S.
The passwd command exits with one of the following values:
1 Permission denied.
2 Invalid combination of options.
3 Unexpected failure. Password file unchanged.
4 Unexpected failure. Password file(s) missing.
5 Password file(s) busy. Try again later.
6 Invalid argument to option.
/etc/passwd password file.
/etc/shadow shadow password file.
/etc/default/passwd Default values can be set for the fol-
lowing flags in /etc/default/passwd.
For example: MAXWEEKS=26
MAXWEEKS Maximum time period that
password is valid.
MINWEEKS Minimum time period
before the password can
PASSLENGTH Minimum length of pass-
word, in characters.
WARNWEEKS Time period until warning
of date of password's
finger(1), login(1), nispasswd(1), yppasswd(1),
domainname(1M), eeprom(1M), id(1M), passmgmt(1M),
pwconv(1M), su(1M), useradd(1M), userdel(1M), usermod(1M),
crypt(3C), getpwnam(3C), getspnam(3C),
nis_local_directory(3N), loginlog(4), passwd(4), shadow(4),
The passwd command replaces the nispasswd and yppasswd com-
mands and should be used in their place.